Friday, September 24, 2010

The Ancient Religions of Eebe Waaq ( Dhaqankii Eebe-Waaq)

The Old Religion
Religion in arabic is call (Diin) and in old somali is call ( Dhaqan)
The Somali people  in pre-islamic times practiced a complex  Monotheistic religion with a set of Deities superseded by a single all powerful figure called Eebe (God also known as Waaq). The  Equillibrium of the Universe in Somali  Mythology was tied with the Love (Gacal ) and between the beloved (Gacalo).or the sky Bull and the Cow
 The Universe was said to balance itself on the horns of a The Love and the Beloved or Waaq and Eebe so the Bull and the cow of the sky  a beast forever staring at the cow tied to a pole in front of him. Whenever his love turned her eyes away from the Bull, it would result in a physical shift that caused natural disasters on Earth  Religious temples were called (Xeero) dating from antiquity known as Taalo were the centers where important ceremonies were held led by a (Wadaad) the priest .

Major Deities

Eebe Eebe is the Somali word for God and was synonymously used for the ancient Cushitic Sky God Waaq. According to Somali Legend Eebe lived in the Heavens  and whenever the Somalis successfully prayed for rain it was known as Bar-waaqo (God's rain)
Ayaanle The Ayaanle in Ancient Somalia were known as the good spirits or Angels  and acted as mediators between God Eebe ) and Humans. They were said to be bringers of luck and  Blessings from Eebe in somali what they call today is Ayaanlayaal
Huur Huur  or Xuur was the messenger of Death and had the form of a large bird. The deity was akin to Waaq of  and played a similar role in the ancient Somali society.
Nidar Nidar was the righter of wrong. He was considered the champion of those that were exploited by their fellow humans. The deity has survived in modern Somalia as a popular saying; Nidar Ba Ku Heli ("Nidar will find and Punish you")

Ancient Tomps and temples

Many  Regions of Ancient somalia had cities or specific areas whose names corroborate the stories told in Somali old Religion and the  mythology. Places such as Abud waq, Ceel waq , Digil waq and so on another similar towns with the name Waq in it indicate a relation to the old religion practiced in the Somali peninsula  . The Tomb of Arraweello (Taalo araweelo) is another popular mythological place in Somalia said to be the final resting place of Queen Arraweello. In modern times it's considered an important place for women.
Ancient Mythology

Habbad ina Kamas

Habbad ina Kamas was a legendary cruel giant who ruled half of Ancient Somalia. His oppressive rule was the complete opposite to the kindness and care that was bestowed upon the other half of the land ruled by the giant Biriir ina Barqo. He was defeated and killed in battle by Biriir when he found out about the abuse and neglect through the mouths of his human subjects.
Biriir ina Barqo Biriir ina Barqo was a legendary heroic Giant in Ancient Somalia known for his just rule and kindness. He lived in a cave called Shimbiraale(the cave of birds) and used to wear a heavy ring that no man could lift. He answered the pleas of those suffering under the rule of the giant called Habbad and defeated him in battle. He then united the two lands and ushered in a long period of peace.
Qori ismaris Qori ismaris was a man who could transform himself into a Hyenaman by rubbing himself with a magic stick at nightfall and by repeating this process could return to his human state before dawn.
Dhegdheer Dhegdheer was a female cannibalistic demon who hunted in Somali forests, her victims were usually wandering or lost

(Wadad) the Ancient somali doctor and the Priest:

The ancient somalis had a very modified religious systems call (Dhaqan Eebe-Waaq), for example with reference to the social significance of Bari (pray) and Bar-waaqo ( a gift from God ) . Bar-waaqo was considered a gift from God to the founders and heads of the ancient Wadaads of somalia  orders. It is likewise associated with major Gods Tole and Tin-cire  and their clan genealogies.
The ancient somali Wadaad  has power to bless, but his Bari may have potentially dangerous side effects. His curse(yua'sho) is greatly feared, and his power may harm others. When a wadaad leader visits the leader of another clan, the host's relative receives him first to draw off some of the visitor's power so that his own chief may not be injured.

the Wadaad and the Ancient Somali Astronomy:

The traditional learning of a wadaad includes a form of folk astronomy based on stellar movements and related to seasonal changes. Its primary objective is to signal the times for migration, but it may also be used to set the dates of rituals that are specifically for the ancient Somali. This folk knowledge is also used in ritual methods of healing and averting misfortune, as well as for divination.
Wadaddo - help avert misfortune by making protective amulets and charms that transmit some of their Baryo (blessings)  to others, or by adding the some kind of ancient writings  to the amulet (Xirsi-xir)  through a written passage. The Baryo or the Yu'asho of a wadaad may be obtained in the form of an object that has touched or been placed near his tomb (taalo) 
Although wadaddo may use their power to curse as a sanction, misfortune generally is not attributed to curses or witchcraft. the ancient Somalis have accepted the most of these views that a man's conduct will be judged in an afterlife by Eebe  However, a person who commits an antisocial act, such as patricide, is thought possessed of supernatural evil powers (Nidir)
Wadaad the Doctor .
Certain kinds of illness, including tuberculosis and pneumonia, or symptoms such as sneezing, coughing, vomiting, and loss of consciousness, are believed to result from spirit possession call the (Nidir), namely, the wadaddo of the spirit (Ayaanlayaal ) world. The condition is treated by a human wadad, preferably one who has himself recovered from the sickness. He used to read a portions of the Faal (this was the ancient somali Book of spirits)  over the patient and bathes him with perfume, which in Somalia is associated with religious celebrations.(Istunka and Bar-waaqoda ) 
In the case of possession by the zar, a spirit, the ceremony of exorcism used to treat it is sometimes referred to as the "zar cult." (Mingis) The victims are women with grievances against their husbands. The symptoms are extreme forms of hysteria and fainting fits. The zar exorcism ritual is conducted by a woman who has had the affliction and thus supposedly has some authority over the spirit. The ritual consists of a special dance in which the victim tends to reproduce the symptoms and fall into a trance. The "illness" enables a disgruntled wife to express her hostility without actually quarreling with her husband.
A third kind of spirit possession is known as Mingis (entering), in which the spirit of an injured person troubles the offender. A jilted girl, for example, cannot openly complain if a promise of marriage arranged by the respective families has been broken. Her spirit, however, entering the young man who was supposed to marry her and stating the grievance, causes him to fall ill. The exorcism consists of readings from the Faal  and commands from a wadad that the spirit leave the afflicted person.
Gelid-mingis  is also thought to be caused by the curse or evil power of a helpless person who has been injured. The underlying notion is that those who are weak in worldly matters are mystically endowed. Such persons are supposed to be under the special protection from Eebe, and kind acts toward them bring religious merit, whereas unkind acts bring punishment. The evil eye, too, is associated with unfortunates, especially women. Thus, members of the Yibir and the Yixir tribes the numerically smallest and weakest of the special occupation groups and traditionally the lowliest socially, are the most feared for their supernatural powers.
Ancient Somalis also used  in rituals that derive from  in some cases resemble those of other Eastern Cushitic-speaking peoples. Perhaps the most important of these rituals are the annual celebrations of the clan ancestor among northern Somalis - an expression of their solidarity - and the collective rainmaking ritual (roobdoon) performed by sedentary groups in the south.

Why Muslims are leaving Islam ?

BY : Nuradiin Jimaleh  / Atlanta GA. U.S.A

Why New Muslims are leaving Islam in millions? which is unprecedented in the Islamic History . The reason is  most of these New converts to Islam are ignorant about the true face of islam  prior to  their convert , truely they are victims of SugarCoated Islam. From my observation majority of ex-muslims either become Atheists/Agnostics/FreeThinkers or become Christians and even a few of them embraces Hinduism and  Buddhism
Prof ILyas Ba Yunus is a muslim researcher who lives in the  U.S he found out  75% of New Muslims are  leaving Islam in a few years.
Hear this Clip : or
(A Research by Prof. Ilyas Ba Yunus)

How can Islam be the fastest growing religion in the world while it is losing millions of its members ? Can the Muslims and those "Useful Idiot" Western Magazines such as CNN, USA Today prove statistically that Islam is fastest growing religion based on conversions ?
Most of us  know people who are just waiting to be SAVED from Islam, but they are still so afraid of it. I know people whose whole lives are destroyed by Islam and they know it, but they can't come face to face with it beacuse they are afraid. It's really a very difficult thing to release yourself from all the fear and terror of Islam. It is a cult. It's not an easy thing to do. People need support, they need groups. They need to feel that they are not alone. Here are some of the recent News about Muslims leave Islam in droves and embrace other religions and ideologies which are compatible with Golden rule, Humanity
2 million ethnic Muslims in Russia leave islam: 

in every year  6 million African muslims convert to Christianity or Atheisam .
Shiekh Ahmed Katani : "In every hour, 667 Muslims convert to Christianity. Everyday, 16,000 Muslims convert to Christianity. Ever year, 6 million Muslims convert to Christianity. These numbers are very large indeed".
For English Translation :
Muslim Preachers, Dawa Missionaries, Islamic Scholars, Mullahs, Imams Leave Islam and Enter Christianity.
200,000 UK Muslims Left Islam,,2-1470584,00.html
50,000 Iranian Muslims have embraced Christianity in Iran in last 2 years
250000 Muslims left Islam in Malaysia,100000 became christians
For English :
10,000 Frech Muslims converted to Christianity in last years,
For English :
Thousands of Kashmiri Muslims leave Islam and Convert to Christianity !
Thousands of Bangladeshi, North African, Kashmiri, Indian Muslims, Central Asian Muslims Leave Islam and Embrace Christ.
Some 35,000 Turks converted from Islam to Christianity last year
Kyrgyzstan : 100,000 Muslims have converted to Christianity in 3 Years !
Omurzak Mamayusupov, the director of Kyrgyzstan's religious affairs committee, "The percentage of Muslims declined from 84 percent of the total population in 2001 to 79.3 percent in 2004. In terms of figures, he added, some 100,000 Muslims, of the country's five million population, have converted to Christianity."
Indonesia :
"According to A.T. Willis and others between 2 or 3 million Muslims converted to Christianity after the massacres of the communists in Indonesia, in 1965"
"Catholic officials stated that approximately 10,000 Muslims convert to Catholicism each year. "

Ancient Somali Gods / part # 1

BY : Hure G  Ismail  / Ottawa Ont , Canada

Linguistically, Somali was classified as a member of the Eastern Cushitic sub-group of the Cushitic branch of the Hamitic family. Languages that belong to the Hamitic family were usually sub-divided into branches that represented dialects of the original parent language. These were ancient Egyptian, Berber, Cushitic and Chadic.
While some linguists rejected the existence of a genetic affinity between the Chadic and other branches of the Hamitics, others accepted it Similarly, on the basis of the low percentage of vocabulary items shared between the West Cushitic languages and other members of the Cushitic branch, some scholars classified West Cushitic as a separate branch of the Hamitic known as Omotic. Still others connect Omotic with the Chadic group
However, whatever linguistic characteristics Somali seems to share with other languages of the Cushitic group, the presence of a fairly large number of ancient objects of worship as well as names of Gods clearly separates it from the group and calls for a more comprehensive study of the language. For the purpose of clarity, gods of Somali origin identified in the study as well as Somali words used are rendered in the new Somali orthography.)
Contrary to the accepted traditional classification and the recent claim by Prof. M. Nuh (PhD UCLA 1981) that Somali separated from parent Cushitic some 3000 to 3500 years ago, it was evident from the study the language could well belong to the ancient stage of the Hamitic if not earlier. The fact that it survived almost intact over several millennia could probably be due to its speakers’ unchanged pastoralist way of life and their almost geographical isolation in the North-Eastern corner of the Horn of Africa
Ancient  Gods of Somalia / the land of punt :
Undoubtedly the most important aspect of the present study was the Somali-Egyptian relationship. Present linguistic evidence showed at least five of ancient Egypt’s gods came from or had obvious links with the country they at times called ‘The Land of the Gods’/Punt. For instance, the supreme sun god, RA’ (also alternatively called RA and RE) occurs as a component of a number of culturally-important Somali words. The all-important ritual word for slaughter, GOW-RA-C, clearly indicates the sun god was as old as the language itself. GOWRAC literally meant ‘cut for RA-C’. The Oromo word for the same ritual was GO-RA’ with a Hamzah substituted for the more difficult to pronounce C (’). RA was the only god Somali shared with other Eastern Cushitic branch with the exception of WAQ-RA-C' or WAAQ-RA-C' which it also shares with the Oromo. Other Somali words which also contained the supreme sun god EEBA or EEBE or EEB-RA  (an illegitimate child), ARRAWEELO (AR-RA-WEELO), the legendary pagan queen who castrated a whole generation of the Somali menfolk. ARRAWEELO literally meant ‘The one who obeyed RA’. The Somali word for ‘wrong’ was GURRAC (GUR-RAC). GUR meant ‘the left hand’, which in most languages stood for ‘wrong’
The two words GARRE (GAR-RE) and BARRE (BAR-RE) incorporated the third alias of the sun god, RE. Consequently, GARRE meant the same as GARAC – both meaning an illegitimate child. Hence the saying “GARRE GARAC MALE” – meaning the GARRE (a clan in the south) have no illegitimate child. It was an accepted tradition to this day among the clan that a newly-wed bride was immediately taken away by young herdsmen and could not be returned to her husband until she was pregnant. BARRE (BAR-RE) meant god’s rain. BAR means rain drops as in BARWAAQO (BAR-WAQ).
HOROUS, the second most important of ancient Egypt’s gods, also appears to have originated in the ‘Land of the gods’/Punt. The dark falcon deity (Somali ABOODI) still remains a much feared bird. It was believed to be particularly dangerous to newly-born babies and nursing mothers. A piece of the bird’s bones or its claw was traditionally tied around the infant as a protection against its harmful spells. In North-Eastern Somalia in particular, the male name HORUSE was given to a child of dark complexion. To protect themselves against the falcon’s evil eye, nursing mothers often carry a knife or a short stick of the WAGAR tree. Incidentally, the Egyptian pharaohs reportedly carried the same WAGAR stuff to the battlefield to ensure victory against the enemy.
OSIRIS, another of ancient Egypt’s gods who reportedly ruled the underworld after being killed by SET (Ed. Somali SED), was evidently a Greek distortion of ISIR and WA-SIIR in Somali. Today, Somalis sometimes refer to AB and ISIR in their denial of an accusation that was culturally horrendous. One usually says ‘I have neither AB nor ISIR for such an act’ – meaning I have neither the genetic probability nor the cultural or religious orientation to commit such a horrendous act.
NEPHDEYS and BES, two less prominent ancient Egyptian gods, also appear to have some affinity with the Somali language. While NAF in Somali meant ‘soul’, NEF meant ‘breath’. Hence NEPHDEYS literally would mean ‘The one who releases breath – a function more or less attributed to the ancient god. BES in Somali meant ‘One who was in his or her deathbed’ – also a function the latter god was associated with.
The ancient Cananite god, PAL or BA'AL who was the son of EL or ILLAH was still alive in Somali in the same sense but probably in only two words –UUR-KU-BAALE-LE and YA-BAAL. The rarely used UUR-KU-BAAL-LE meant ‘One who has BA;AL in him’. One would usually ask: “How do you expect me to know your intentions? Do you think I have BAAL in me?” In essence, this meant only one who had BAAL in him could foretell the hidden or the unknown. YABAAL, possibly an alternative name for BAAL, was usually associated with the voice, of an invisible being that told one what to do or not to do in time of crisis in the wilderness.
Another supposedly ‘ancient Hamitic god’, HOBAL, also was evidently of Somali origin. HOOBAL – alternatively HOOYAL – was probably the best known of all Somali gods and continues to dominate Somali poetry and traditional folklore songs. Pagan Arabia’s most important god, HUBAL, was none other than the Somali HUBAL, co-opted and given an Arabised sound. In modern Somali today, HOBAL, was understood to mean ‘Artiste’. The ancient god was probably the patron-god of Somali literature.
WAD’AAD (now WADAAD), evidently the pre-Islamic word for priest (man of religion) was still commonly used and contained the ancient ‘Hamitic’ god WAD. Hence WAD’AAD, or more recently WADAAD, meant the attendant of WAD. In modern Somali, WAD meant ‘death’. Similarly, GAR’AAD (currently GARAAD) meant ‘an expert in law’ – probably the clan advocate. In modern Somali, however, GARAAD today means prince or Sultan of a clan

Finally, the ancient Mayan Sea god, MANYA, simply meant sea in the Somali dialect spoken in the old quarters of Mogadishu.

 ancient Egypt’s most prominent deities as well as two Semitic and one Cananite ancient names of god clearly calls for a thorough review of this medium hitherto classified as Eastern Cushitic.
True to its old name ‘The Land of the gods / Punt, Somalia was probably a very important center of religion in ancient times and the probable cradle of idol-worship for both sides of the Red Sea and farther afield. The fact that the Horn of Africa was the oldest settlement that combined both Hamites and Semites also lends more credibility to the current popular theory that human species originated in the East African region.
part # 2 >>>

Ancient somali Gods / Part # 2

Somalis are a homogenous race of mainly nomads and occupy a vast but sparsely populated territory between Djibouti on the red Sea and Tana River in the north-eastern Kenya. Believed a member of the Eastern Cushitic group, which also includes the Afar, Oromo, Rendille and others, somalis  generally became fanatics  defence of Islam, Somalis tend to be rather liberal in practice. around 615 AD some of Companions of Muhammad reportedly migrated to the Horn of Africa only a few years after Islam’s appearance in its birth-place of Mecca. To this day, however, the faith is yet to make a significant impact on the lives of these hardy nomads and appears to blend well with some age-old pagan traditions.

Historically, very little was known about the Somali people’s pre-Islamic past. Despite recent fossil and genetic evidence which strongly advocate the theory that mankind originated in Africa, and East Africa in particular, there was relatively little archeological study of the Somali peninsula. Most archeologists and paleontologists tended to concentrate their search on the more hospitable and tourist-friendly countries of Tanzania, Kenya and Ethiopia. The logically more potential and geologically older terrain of Somalia was somehow ignored. The inhabitants of the Somali coasts were known to have contact and trade relations with the two known oldest civilizations of the world, namely ancient Egypt and Sumaria. Unlike ancient Egypt where scholars were able to uncover and translate numerous writings and records, our knowledge of Sumaria remained relatively scant and inadequate. The author, however, thought it of interest that Sumarian huts which were made of woven reed were an exact replica of a Somali nomad’s collapsible hut. Also strangely enough, the most important Sumarian deity, MARDUKH or MARDUK  in Old somali MAR-DUUG  literally meant in Somali ‘The one who was once buried’.
Perhaps the earliest and most detailed historical record of Somalia was that of the famous Egyptian Queen Hatshepsut’s voyage to the Land of Punt in 1500 BC. On arrival there, however, the king and queen of Punt enquired of her why she came after her ancestors forsook them for a long time. Apparently, contact between the two countries did not begin with the queen’s visit but existed much earlier.
Ancient Egyptian records narrate how would-be Pharaohs were ritually required to go on a pilgrimage to ‘The Land of the Gods’/Pund  prior to their ascent to the throne. The name ‘The Land of the Gods’ and this ritual were apparently lost to historians who failed to appreciate the fact that the country was an important centre of religion and the cradle of idol worship.
Sadly, Egyptologists often worked on the premise that the ancient Egyptian civilization began along the fertile Nile Valley where farming and other so-called pre-requisites for civilizations were possible. Without disputing the fact that this civilization made tremendous development and reached its zenith along the Nile Valley, its humble beginnings could have originated elsewhere where time and conditions obliterated any visible signs of its existence. With its huge obelisks, gigantic pyramids, ruined cities and other priceless archaeological treasures, Egypt no doubt provided everything scholars ever dreamed of and much more – and they never looked beyond since.
While the mysterious ‘Punt’ was probably the ancestor of the Somali speaking people (? The Biblical Phut in Genesis), it was mainly ‘The Land of the Gods’ which captured the imagination of the author. It was an indisputable fact that, in ancient civilizations, religion dominated the lives of people and formed the pillars of their culture. Little wonder that most of ancient Egypt’s gods as well as the most important components of their culture came from the country they knew as ‘The Land of the Gods’.
Paintings of their gods show at least six held the common Somali nomad’s HANGOOL – a handy stuff hook-shaped at one end and a V-shaped at the other traditionally used for handling thorn bushes. Another three gods held the slender Somali spear. Ancient Egyptian traditional dresses, the Royal scarf worn around the waist as well as the (Ivory) headrest all reminds one of the present day Somalia. Curiously enough, the beautifully decorated scarf to this day remained part of a Somali nomad girl’s ceremonial attire and was called BOQOR. The word BOQOR was also the only Somali word for king. While the method of burying the dead with their belongings was also a pre-Islamic Somali tradition, there where the persistent reports of the existence of man-made hills in north-east Somalia- a probable predecessor to ancient Egypt’s geometrical pyramids.
Apart from the ancient Egyptian records, the only mention of pre-Islamic Somalia was that by the Greek geographers and travelers Herodotus, Strabo, Pliny, Ptolemy and cosmos Indicopleustas who visited the Red Sea coast between Barbaria and its people were Barbars. The name Berber was apparently a corruption of Barbar and, therefore, Barbaria must have been the original homeland of the North African Berbers.
In all probability, the Red Sea Port city of Berbera was Barbara, the most important town in Barbaria. Perhaps it would be of interest to note here that the ancient Egyptian Hieroglyph was also called BARBA. Incidentally, BARBA in Somali meant ‘teach to write’ and was still in use in the old quarter of Mogadishu. BAR in Somali means ‘teach’ and BA was the first letter of the Hieroglyph as well as the Somali orthography. While the word Barbarism and Barbaric found its way into some European dictionaries in their correct spelling, they obviously referred to the hostile and ‘savage’ conduct of the North Africans who then were the only Barbars in contact with Europe.
Another unexpected source which the author found valuable was the two Holy Books of the two main monotheistic religions, namely the Bible and Qur’an. In the opinion of the author, the age of the two books and their reference to historical events renders them a valuable source which could not simply be ignored or dismissed. As a matter of fact, the two books provided some useful hints which added to the mounting etymological evidence at hand. For instance, the Biblical YAHWE (later turned Yehova and Jehova) was evidently the same as the Somali YAHU – traditionally invoked to ward off evil or danger. While the Cananite god ‘Pal’ was still present in Somalia in the same sense in one or two words, the ancient Aramaic name for the almighty, EBBE, was to this day the most commonly used names for God besides the Islamic ‘Allah’. The Biblical TUBAN-CAIN, whose profession was to make instruments (Genesis 4:22) was obviously a Greek mispronunciation of TUMAL, the Somali iron-monger.
According to the earliest interpretations of the Quran, the place where Cain slew his brother, Abel, was ‘GERIYAT’ which reportedly meant ‘The place of Death’. Incidentally, the hottest most desolate piece of desert in North-Western Somalia was called and thus also meant in Somali. GERIYAT (GEERIYAAD) lies about 25km south of the historical Red Sea Port of Zeila (probably the Biblical Zillah, the mother of TUBAL-CAIN). Also according to the Holy Quran, WAD(the ancient Hamite god) was one of the five idol-gods worshipped during the time of Prophet Noah. There was now etymological evidence that WAD was a Somali deity as also was HOBAL and several of ancient Egypt’s gods

End :

Somali Folklore Rituals

The Universal Declaration of Human rights Vs The Islamic Rights For the Non-Mulims :

what are the Islamic Rights For the Non-Muslims :
 Islamic Sharia for the Non-Muslims and Ex-Muslims or any other groups who are not a Muslim,  the Shari'a law dictates that there shall be no equality no rights and no liberty for any one who is not a muslim.
Qur'an (48:29) - "Muhammad is the messenger of Allah. And those with him are hard (ruthless) against the disbelievers( non-muslims )  and merciful among themselves( the muslims )"
 This shows us that  Islam is not about treating everyone equally.  There are two very distinct standards that are applied based on religious status.The Rights for the Muslims and the Rights for the Non-Muslims under the islamic state and this shows again and again that non-muslims under the islamic shar'a Law have now rights or liberty what so ever read these verses >>>
Qur'an (3:56) - "As to those who reject faith ( non-muslims)  I will punish them with terrible agony in this world and in the Hereafter, nor will they have anyone to help."
Muslim (19:4321-4323) - Three separate hadith in which Muhammad shrugs over the news that innocent children were killed in a raid by his men against unbelievers.  His response: "They are of them (meaning the enemy)."

Muslim (1:33) - the Messenger of Allah said: I have been commanded to fight against people ( non-muslims) till they testify that there is no god but Allah, that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah

Bukhari (8:387) - Allah's Apostle said, "I have been ordered to fight the people (non-muslims) till they say: 'None has the right to be worshipped but Allah
. Under strict Sharia law only Muslims can be full citizens of an Islamic state. Many states shamelessly discriminate against non-Muslims and ex-muslims alike , In Saudi Arabia ,Kuwait , pakistan and somalia being a Muslim is a precondition of naturalization. Non-muslims have no erights but they may not participate in public life or hold positions of authority over Muslims. Anyone other than a Muslim, Christian or Jew is deemed to be an unbeliever and is not permitted to reside permanently in an Islamic state. The Koran only recognizes the People of the Book as religious communities. Others are pagans and must be excluded. In criminal prosecutions non-Muslims are given harsher punishments than Muslims. Crimes against Muslims are often punished more severely than crimes against others. In court under the Sharia the testimony of a non-Muslim carries less weight than that of a Muslim
In the multicultural Globe of which we are now part there can be no justification for discrimination on religious grounds. Imagine the howls of protest if Muslims living in the west were to be treated as second-class citizens under the law. One of the great lessons we can learn from the west is the idea of secular, that is neutral, laws that discriminate against no-one.
The Universal Declaration Of the human rights of Dec/10/1948 at the U.N

 THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY proclaims THIS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.

Article 1.

  • All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Article 2.

  • Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.

Article 3.

  • Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.

Article 4.

  • No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.

Article 5.

  • No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or

Article 6.

  • Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.

Article 7.

  • All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.

was prophet Muhammed a Racist or a Nationalist ? Part # 1

By:  Warssame Jamac  / London U.K

Nationalism is the natural and most effective weapon for any  politician to use .and the  Prophet of islam Muhammed used for his own cause , why you might ask ? , becouse he wanted to be loved and worshipped as the only Lord of Arabia because of his immense dominance-urge, which tolerates no equal or rival. This is the reason that Muhammad made the following principle as the cornerstone of his nationalistic agenda of  pan-Arabisam . to prove this point you should  read the books of  Hadiths and here they are >>

About the Arabs :
1) From the book of Imam Tirmeze or Al Trmidi ( Jamiu Al Tirmze Vol. # 2 ) The Prophet of Allah said  "Of the two tribes that Allah  chose as the best were the descendants of Ishmael (Arabs ) and Isaac (jews) . God preferred the children of Ishmael (Arabs, to the children of Isaac - the Jews). Then God created Muhammad in the chosen tribe of the Quresh (the descendants of Ishmael ) and then he chose his family (Bani Hashim) as the best among the Quresh families and created Muhammad as the best of all men."

2)From the Book of Imam Trmidi ( jamiu Al Trimize vol # 2)  "He who aggresses against Arabia, shall not win my love, nor will I intercede for him."
3) From the The Book ( The house of Imran iii # 105 ) the prophet said  "you  Arabs are the best nation ever brought forth and bidding honour, and forbidding dishonour...

One can see here the racial pride of the Prophet; he is not only exalts the Arabs over the non Arabs but also , he prefers his own family (Hashemites) to the rest of the Arab clans. Finally, he asserts his own superiority over each and every member of mankind to rank as Khair-ul-Bashar (the best of men). It is strange that the non-Arab Muslim eagerly quote the Prophet's Address of the Last Hajj to prove that there is no colour distinction or nationalism in Islam when most muslims don't seems to care about this open truth about their prophet .  

4) From the book of Imam Al Tabari or Da'bari Vol IX number 69 Ali Bin Abi Talib said  "Arabs are the most noble people in lineage, the most prominent, and the best in deeds. We were the first to respond to the call of the Prophet. We are Allah’s helpers and the viziers of His Messenger. We fight people until they believe in Allah. He who believes in Allah and His Messenger has protected his life and possessions from us. As for one who disbelieves, we will fight him forever in Allah’s Cause. Killing him is a small matter to us

The above quoted hadiths clearly testifies to the Muhammed's national zeal and demonstrates his effort to convince his fellow-Arabs that they are superior to the every one on this earth  ,  whose racial ties were forged into a distinct nationhood with the force of religious manipulation. Obviously, this is the reason that Muhammad, following the Mosaic model, invented Islam to glorify Arabia .
About the Quresh:

Muhammad was a wise man. He knew that the Quresh family of Arabia had tremendous economic resources and social expertise. If they could be persuaded to become a part of his Pan- Arabisam nationalism, Arabia would stand to gain a great prestige among the other Arab clans . Therefore, as a first step, he held out an olive branch to them when he conquered Mecca in 631 AD , this was his  psychological approach to say ( who ever enetrs the house of Abu Sufiyan or who ever enetres the Ka'ba is safe ) which sought national union the common ancestry starting with Quresh. and this is what he said :
1)  From the book of Imam Tirmize ( jamiu Tirmze ) the Prophet of Allah said  "May Allah destroy those who intend to humiliate the Quresh."

2) From The book of Sahih al Bukhari vol 4  the prophet of Allah said  "the prerogative to rule shall remain vested in the Quresh, and whosoever is hostile to them, Allah shall destroy him "


3)  Again from the book of Sahih al Bukhari Vol 4 the prophet said  "The right to rule shall belong to the Quresh even if two men existed"
4)From the book of Bukhari 9:89 /329  Narrated Jabir bin Samura: I heard the Prophet saying, "There will be twelve Muslim rulers (who will rule all the Islamic world)." He then said a sentence which I did not hear. My father said, "All of them (those rulers) will be from Quraish."

was prophet Muhammed a Racist or a Nationalist ? Part # 2

Part #2

And Here again we can still see  more evidence about Prophet Muhamma's  triblastic view about the women on this planet , he even called his own wife kajida and his own daughter Fatima the best among all women in this world and all the Quraishi women .

1) From the Book of Al-Bukhari Vol # 7  , Narrated by Abu huraira Allah's Prophet said, "The best  among women are   the women of Quraish."   (Another narrator said) The Prophet said,   "The righteous among the women are the women of Quraish . "

2) From the Book of Al Bihaqi sunnah vol #7  the prophet of Allah said  " The best of the women of Paradise are Khadija Bint Khowailid ( his old wife )  Fatima Bint Muhammad "

3) Also in Bihaqi's quotation in Sunnah vol.# 7, The prophet of Allah said  "  best of your women is Fatima Bint Muhammad"

4) Aisha said The  Prophet of Allah declared these four women are  best of all the women of the world. .... She replied, '"Among women it was Fatima bint muhammad"   following hadith from A'yesha: "Among women, Fatima "

What did Muhammad Said about the Africans ?
1) From the Book of Bukhari 9:89 :256 and 1:11:662 Narrated Anas bin Malik: Allah's prophet said, "You should listen to and obey, your ruler even if he was an Ethiopian (black) slave whose head looks like a raisin."

2) From the Book of Siratu Ibnu Ishaq Page # 243 Imran Ibnul Hussayn said heard the prophet of Allah say: ‘Whoever wants to see Satan ( the Devil ) should look at Nabtal!' He was a black man with long flowing hair, inflamed eyes, and dark ruddy cheeks…. Allah sent down concerning him: ‘To those who annoy the Prophet there is a painful doom." [9:61] "Gabriel came to Muhammad and said, If a black man comes to you his heart is more gross than a donkey's.'

3) From the Book of Sahih Muslim 10:3901 Jabir ibnu Abdullahi  reported: There came a slave and pledged allegiance to Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) on migration; he (the Holy Prophet) did not know that he was a slave. Then there came his master and demanded him back, whereupon Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: Sell him to me. And he bought him for two black slaves, and he did not afterwards take allegiance from anyone until he had asked him whether he was a slave "
4) From the Book of Sahih Muslim The prophet of Allah said :   "(Al Habashi) Blacks will steal when hungry; when cloy (full) they are promiscuous"

Read what some of the Muslim Historians wrote :

Historian Ibnu Tabari 990 CE said in his book Siratul Rasuul " The Sons of Ham [Africans] begat all those who are black and curly-haired, while Japheth [Turks] begat all those who are full-faced with small eyes, and Shem [Arabs] begat everyone who is handsome of face with beautiful hair. Noah prayed that the hair of Ham's descendants would not grow beyond their ears, and that whenever his descendants met Shem's, the latter would enslave them

Historian Nasir Al-Din Al-Tusi 1201 CE in his book Rawdat Al-Taslim said : If (all types of men) are taken, from the first, and one placed after another, like the Negro from Zanzibar ( East Africa )  in the Southern-most countries, the Negro does not differ from an animal in anything except the fact that his hands have been lifted from the earth -in no other peculiarity or property - except for what Allah wished. Many have seen that the ape is more capable of being trained than the Negro (African)  and more intelligent."

Historian Ibnul Khaldun 1377 CE said in his book Kitab Al-ibar " Negro nations (Africans) are as a rule , submissive to slavery , becouse (Negroes) have little that is essentially human and possess attributes that are quite similar to those of dumb animals "

Did any of his companions ( sahabah) follow his footsteps ? what do you think ? ofcourse they did he was their lead and their beloved prophet of allah .

1) Abu-Bakar the first Caliph said this:  >>
 "The Arabs do not and will not recongnize any sovereignty unless it belongs to the tribe of Quraysh , The princes shall be from among us , whereas your ( he was talking to the people of Madiana ) will furnish the viziers "
and Again he said " if any opponent of Quraysh comes forward the jaws of the lion of  Quraysh will be chewed "
2) Omar Bin Khatab was the second caliph said : >>
 " Don't learn the language of the Non-Arabs ( Al Ajam ) so the you leave your own Arabic , if you do so you will leave your religion of Al islam "

3) Ali Bin Abi Talib was the fourth caliph and he said : >>
From the book of Imam Al Tabari or Da'bari Vol IX number 69 Ali Bin Abi Talib said  "Arabs are the most noble people in lineage, the most prominent, and the best in deeds. We were the first to respond to the call of the Prophet. We are Allah’s helpers and the viziers of His Messenger. We fight people until they believe in Allah. He who believes in Allah and His Messenger has protected his life and possessions from us. As for one who disbelieves, we will fight him forever in Allah’s Cause. Killing him is a small matter to us

In conclusion all of these hadiths showed us that Prophet Muhammed was a trabalist  who promoted over 1400 years ago what we called  today Pan-Arabisam or the Arab Nationalism , but for most muslims they don't seem to care all about this prove especially most somalis. 

The History of Islamic Militancy in Somalia /Part # 1

" it's very importand to look back your past history , so you can shape your future  somali proverb
Militancy simply means having a combative character; aggressive, especially in the service of a cause. Adding Islamic adjective signifies that certain interpretation of Islam is used as the guiding ideology of that militancy. The first such militancy in the history of Islam was labelled “al-Khawarij” ["the Seceders" or "the Rebels"] because of their rebellion [khuruj] against fourth Imam of Islam 'Ali ibn Abi Talib.

1800-1920th Century Islamic Somalia 
Looking into the history of Somalia in the 18th and 19th centuries, the revival of Islam was carried by the Sufi Brotherhood movements and legendary Sufi scholars belonging to the three main Sufi Orders: Qadiriyah, Ahmadiyah and Salihiyah had emerged. The names of Sheikh Madar, Sheikh Abdirahman Al-Zayli, Sheikh Aweys al-Baraawi, Sheikh Mohamed Guleed, Sayid Mohamed Abdulle Hassan, Sheikh Ali Maye, Sheikh Sufi and many others are well known teachers and respected Islamic Scholars in Somalia. Sufi brotherhoods are generally moderate and use peaceful means of propagating Islam that offer due consideration to the norms and customs of the people. Often, they use innovative means to assimilate and absorb the pastoral and illiterate masses and mobilize them into common action.  Bloodlettings being the most heinous crime in Islam, Islamic scholars usually abstain from recurrent clan fighting in the harsh pastoral environment. Their role is limited to conflict resolution, community education and conducting various religious functions. However, there were three historical events in the history of Somalia when Islamic militancy emerged and certain Islamic scholars led internal fighting to gain politico-religious hegemony. Such historical events have historical importance and constitute precedents for current Islamic militancy and extremism in Somalia. It offers lessons that doctrinal differences and political ambitions may develop into violent wars under the leadership of charismatic and ambitious scholars. 
1. The first event occurred around Baardheere town in the southern Somalia as a confrontation between the Bardheere religious settlements (Jamaaca) and the Geledi Sultanates at Afgoye. The Bardheere settlement was founded in 1819 by Sheikh Ibrahim Yabarow, introducing some Islamic reforms such as outlawing tobacco and popular dancing and prohibiting ivory trade. They began to implement some elements of Islamic Shari’a, such as the wearing of decent Islamic dress for women. In the mid-1930s, receiving strong adherents, the Jamaaca decided to expand its sphere of influence to other regions during era of Sharif Abdirahman and Sharif Ibrahim from Sarmaan in Bakool. By 1840, the Jamaaca warriors reached Baidoa area and Luuq and finally sacked Baraawe, the historic seat of the Qadiriyah Order where both Sultan Ahmed Yusuf of Geledi and Sheikh Maadow of Hintire clan learned, the most powerful leaders who together reacted to the Baardheere expansions. The town of Baraawe accepted their capitulation conditions that include prohibiting tobacco and popular dancing, adopting the Islamic dress code and so on. They also agreed to pay an annual tax of 500 Pessa. This action provoked a concerted response from the clans of the inter-river areas under the charismatic leadership of Geledi Sultan Yusuf Mohamed. The Sultanate mobilized an expedition force of 40,000 from all clans, stormed Bardheere and completely burned it.  Professor Cassanelli characterized this conflict as between the rising power of Islamic reformists and the established traditional power of the Geledi. Moreover, he adds the economic factor of curbing the lucrative ivory trade as well as a clan aspect, which stemmed from the armed immigrant nomads, the followers of the Jamaaca, being perceived as a threat to the local population. The external actors’ role in this conflict was not well researched, however, it is said that Sayid Bargash, the Sultan of Zanzibar, was on good terms with the Geledi Sultanate in the confrontation, perceived to be a Wahabi “Salafia” penetration into Somalia.
2. The second event is connected with the arrival of Sheikh Ali Abdurahman (Majertain) (1787-1952) in Merca in 1946 and his confrontation with the dominant Geledi Sultanate. Sheikh Ali Majertain was born in Nugal region between Growe and Laas-Aanood in the current Puntland. He traveled to Mecca and Baghdad for further learning where he met “with the disciples of Mohamed Abdulwahab” and came back to his home area. He established an Islamic education center at Halin (Xalin) wells near Taleex. However, he emigrated from his home after conflict with his clan and moved to the eastern region under the tutelage of Majertain Sultan Nur Osman. Here also, Sheikh Ali found it unacceptable to live with the overt violation of Islamic Shari’a by the Sultan Nur of Majertain, forming an alliance with Haji Farah Hirsi, a rebel Sultan of Majertain who attempted to establish a new sultanate or to overthrow his cousin, similar to the Saudi style where Haji Farah would take political responsibility and Sheikh Ali would administer religious affairs. To achieve this goal, Sheikh Ali sent a letter to the ruler of Sharja Sheikh Saqar al-Qasimi offering his allegiance and requesting his support. However, Sheikh Saqar could not respond promptly and, dismayed, Sheikh Ali traveled to Zanzibar and remained there for 15 months under the custody of Sultan Said al-Bu-Saidi. Having in mind to establish an Islamic Emirate, Sheikh Ali had arrived in Merca in 1946, three years after the defeat of Baardheere Jamaaca and the dominance of Geledi Sultanate over the vast southern regions. However, Biimal clan, the major clan of Merca, was rebelling against the Geledi sultanate at that time. Sheikh Ali Majertain had arrived in Merca in alliance with Biimal clan, with 5 boats carrying 150 followers and substantial quantities of firearms and ammunition. He settled near Merca with the consent of the Biimal clan and began his activities and education programs. First, he attempted to play the role of a peacemaker between Sultan Yusuf and the Biimal clan and sent a letter to Sultan Yusuf requesting that he accept his reconciliation efforts. However, when Sultan Yusuf refused his offer, he arbitrarily declared war against him.  Sheikh Ali’s followers confronted the Geledi sultan in 1846 without the support of Biimal clan and were easily defeated. His expectation of receiving assistance from Sultan of Zanzibar was dashed, and instead the Zanzibar sultan helped the Sultan of Geledi to confront what was perceived as the threat of the “Wahabis”.  The doctrinal inclination of Sheikh Ali is evident in the letter he sent to the clans of Brava showing that he considered the Geledi Sultanate to be a deviated sect (firqa dalah).  Commenting on the outcome of war, Sheikh Ali stated according Aw Jamac Omar Iisse that “in reality ours [deaths] are in paradise and theirs are in hell” and “if you are among the deviated sect whom Sultan Yusuf leads, there is no relation between us, and your blood will not be saved from us”. The intolerance of Sheikh Ali to the propagation of Islam among his people, his mobilization of armed followers and his siding with the Biimal clan against the Geledi sultanate, all indicates that he belonged to a militant ideology similar to that of Bardheere Jamaaca.
3. The third significant event was the arrival in Berbera in 1895 of Sayid Mohamed Abdulle Hassan, which was not only the beginning of armed encounters with the colonial powers but also initiated internal conflict among the Somali Sufi Orders. Upon his arrival in Berbera, Sayid Mohamed challenged the authority and credentials of the Qadiriyah establishment, setting up the competing Salihiyah Order. He publicly criticized some practices of Qadiriyah Sheikhs, and introduced new verdict (fatwas) on some issues, such as prohibition of chewing Qaad and tobacco, although tolerated by other scholars. However, Qadiriyah scholars succeeded in overcoming these challenges through religious debates. Scholars, like Aw Gas and Haji Ibrahim Hirsi, invited Sheikh Madar from Hargeysa, the head of the Qadiriyah Order in the region, and Sheikh Abdullahi Arusi, the teacher of Sayid Mohamed, to participate in a meeting held in Berbera in 1897 to discuss issues of lawful and prohibited in Islam raised by Sayid Mohamed. However, after heated discussions on the major disputed issues, followers of Qadiriyah in Berbera rebelled against Sayid Mohamed and the British authorities intervened to maintain public order. As a result, Sayid Mohamed was compelled to emigrate from Berbera, carrying with him doctrinal enmity against Qadiriyah. This deep-rooted conflict between Qadiriyah and northern Salihiyah had two dimensions, political and doctrinal. First, Sayid Mohamed was aiming to establish an Islamic Emirate under his leadership without consulting other prominent scholars. His unilateral, authoritarian and violent approach annoyed many scholars and clan leaders. Second, Salihiyah questioned the doctrinal credentials of the rival Qadiriyah Order, condemning them as heretical and claiming that only Salihiyah was authentic and original.  This theological controversy escalated into the trading of polemics and then developed into bitter propaganda against each other. For instance, Sheikh Aweys al-Baraawi, the famous leader of Qadiriyah in southern Somalia wrote poems vilifying Salihiyah Order. Here are some selected excerpts from the poem, translated by B.G. Martin:
The person guided by Mohamed’s law, will not follow the faction of Satan [Salihiyah]
Who deem it lawful to spill the blood of the learned, who take cash and women too: they are anarchist
Do not follow those men with big shocks of hair, a coiffure like the Wahabiya!
Publicly, they sell paradise for cash, in our land; they are a sect of dogs
They have gone astray and make others deviate on earth, by land and sea among the Somalis
Have they no reason or understanding? Be not deceived by them
But flee as from a disaster, from their infamy and unbelief.

 This verbal polemic was countered by a similar diatribe of poems by Sayid Mohamed, which he concluded as Professor Said Samatar related:
“A word to the backsliding apostates, why have gone astray, from the Prophet’s way, the straight path?  Why is the truth, so plain, hidden from you?” This developed into physical attacks on the leaders of Qadiriyah, and on April 14, 1909, followers of Salihiyah murdered Sheikh Aweys al-Baraawi at Biyooley. Unfortunately, when Sayid Mohamed heard of the death of Sheikh Aweys he recited a victory hymn saying “behold, at last, when we slew the old wizard, the rains began to come!” (Candhagodoble goortaan dilaa roobki noo da’aye). The implications of this conflict in Somalia were tremendous, affecting anti-colonial resistance and tarnishing the image of the Salihiyah Order among the population.
On other hand, before the arrival of Sayid Mohamed in Northern Somalia, there was the Dandarawiyah Order, an offshoot of Ahmadiyah, in the towns of Sheikh and Haahi. It was introduced into Northern Somalia by Sayid Adan Ahmed, a disciple of Sayid Ibrahim Al-Rashid. Sayid Mohamed Abdulle Hassan claimed to be the sole authorised legitimate heir of the al-Rashidiyah Order in Northern Somalia and demanded that Dandarawiyah Order in the town of Sheikh and Hahi (Xaaxi) follow him, which they have utterly refused to do.  Against this background, Sayid Mohamed’s forces burned the Ahmadiyah centers in the town of Sheikh as reported by Abdirisaq Aqli in his book “Sheikh Madar”. Sayid Mohamed’s bright points were romanticized by the Somali nationalists in their efforts to nurture national consciousness by narrating glorious past and reconstructing symbols, heroes and myths. In this approach, self inflicted wounds, civil wars, massacres, and human atrocities are downplayed and belittled. However, in tracing the background for the current extremism in the name of Islam, it is necessary to bring up other episodes of the Sayid Mohamed that suggest the historical roots of the current extremism in Somalia.

History of Islamic militancy In somalia / Part # 2

PART # 2.  
1920 - 1960 Islamic Radicals in Somalia:

To understand this phenomenon, it has to be placed in the Somali historical context. Islam has been used as a strong mobilizing ideology in anti-colonial responses and nationalist struggles. The first modern organization in the name of Islam was formed by Haji Farah Omar in Aden in 1925. However, it was banned because of its political activities. The second attempt occurred after the return of Italian rule under UN trusteeship in the 1950s, when the Somali Islamic League was formed in Mogadishu. It set out to promote education in the Arabic language, and lobbied Egypt to open Arabic schools that would be comparable with the Italian school networks. After independence in 1960, some students who had graduated from Arab universities held modern Islamic ideas and introduced them to Somalia.  These Islamic scholars were inspired by the activities of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt and the Salafia (Wahabi School) of Saudi Arabia. The process started with the formation of Al-Nahda (the Renaissance) in Mogadishu (1967), Wahadat al-Shabab al-Islami (the Union of Young Muslims) in Hargeysa (1969)and Al-Ahli (the native)student organizations in Mogadishu (1970).  
The somali Communist regime of 1969, however, abolished Islamic societies and banned all non-state institutions. So Islamic activism operated underground and had by the 1970s taken greater strides, in reaction to the military regimes’ espousal of Marxist ideology. The organizations al-Ahli, Al-Wahda and al-Nahda were coordinating stiff resistance to the socialist ideology. Initially, they all claimed affinity to the Muslim Brotherhood, but that situation had changed by 1975 after the execution of 10 Islamic scholars who opposed secularized family law. Young Islamic activists fled to Sudan, Egypt and Saudi Arabia, and made contact with different aspects of political Islam. Eventually, besides traditional Sufis and Shafi’i jurists, four Islamic affiliations emerged in Somalia:  the Muslim Brotherhood, Salafia and its derivatives, Takfir (declaring unbeliever groups) and Tablighi Jama’a (conveying group). All modern organizations in Somalia are rooted in one of these four schools. For instance, Al-Shabab and Hizb al-Islam claim affinity to the Salafia movements. The complexity of Somali political Islam is such that even traditional Sufis known for their focus on the spiritual aspect of Islam are becoming more political and militant. The organization Ahlu-Sunna wa al-Jama’a is reacting in military ways to the destruction of the tombs of Sufi Sheikhs by the Shabab.  In the final analysis, these organizations agree only on the principle of adopting Islam as the ultimate reference for the state and society. Beyond that, they disagree on political views, being influenced by socio-economic conditions, global politics and regional conflicts. 
Political Islam has been approached from the perspective of those modernist theories that consider that traditions, including religion, are destined to decline, due to the rise of secular nationalism and nation-state institutions. Based on this assumption, Islamic movements are treated as presenting a threat to world order and as security challenges for the 21st century. This notion and the policies built upon it have contributed to further antagonizing and radicalizing many groups within political Islam, both in Somalia and worldwide. In Somalia, tremendous changes have happened over the last 20 years and the political setting has shifted towards political Islam. Certainty, the period of Western projected dominance of secularism, and the state that it represented, collapsed in 1991. Political Islam emerged from its ashes and is now digging itself a strategic position in the realms of the state. Moreover, the people of Somalia are looking to Islam as an alternative salvation and solution. They believe that Islam is capable of diluting radical clanism and reconstituting the state. However, that form of Islam should be authentic and moderate; it should not be based on an extremist interpretation that preaches relentless violence. Currently, the choice is either ruthless extremism or participatory moderation. The question is: which one of these two Islamic banners prevails? Which one would the Somali people choose and support? Which one should the international community accept and work with?
To begin with, Somali intellectuals are required to re-evaluate political reality in Somalia and realize that the choice is between Islamic extremism and moderation. Thus, non-Islamists should make strategic engagement with Islamic moderation. On their part, moderate Islamists have to welcome the participation of all parties in the rebuilding of the state.  All moderate Islamic scholars should realize that the country is in peril and should stand up and articulate the true nature of Islam. All Somalis have to reawaken their natural religiosity and reassert their mobilizing capacity for exceptional solidarity, as brothers and sisters. Moderate Islamists have to show that Islam accepts political participation and plurality for all the citizens. They have to demonstrate that Islam protects human rights and freedom of expression. They have to reconfirm their commitment to peace and regional security. In so doing, they have to convince the international community and regional states that the new Somalia will be a bastion of peace and an icon and hub for development and regional cooperation. 
Finally, extremism will emerge as a triumphant ideology, hence the strategic choice of all concerned parties must be to join with the new government against rising extremism – and the government should combine clemency with resolve and take the path of state reconstitution seriously.

History of Islamic militancy in Somalia /part # 3

PART # 3
In 1967 southern Somalia, the anti-Western reaction crystallized into the formation of a little known Islamic Radical organization called Al-Ahal  founded by a certain Abdulqadir Sheikh Mohamed. Al-Ahal broke up into two organizations, subsequently: Attakfir and Assalafiya. In northern-western Somalia, the anti-Western reaction culminated in the creation of Muslim Youth Union (Wahdada) by a group of religious leaders in Hargeisa, in late 1960s. Assalafiya and the Muslim Youth Union merged subsequently
The coup of October 21, 1969, installed a Communist regime committed to profound change. Shortly afterward, the stella d'Ottobre ( xidigta Oktobar ) the official newspaper of the Supreme Revolutionary Council SRC  published an editorial about relations between Islam and socialism and the differences between scientific and Islamic socialism. Islamic socialism was said to have become a servant of Capitalisam and Neocolonialisam  and a tool manipulated by a privileged, rich, and powerful class. In contrast, scientific socialism was based on the altruistic values that inspired genuine Islam.
Islamic Radicals and the New Scientific Socialisam Movement:
The new SRC told most of the Religious leaders should therefore leave secular affairs to the new leaders who were striving for goals that conformed with Islamic principles. Soon after, the government arrested several protesting religious leaders and accused them of counterrevolutionary propaganda and of conniving with reactionary elements in the Arabian Peninsula also know the Al-Wahhabia . The authorities also dismissed several members of religious tribunals for corruption and incompetence.
When the Three-Year Plan, 1971-1973, was launched in January 1971, SRC leaders felt compelled to win the support of religious leaders so as to transform the existing social structure. On September 4, 1971, Mr Siad Barre exhorted more than 100 religious teachers to participate in building a new socialist society. He criticized their method of teaching in Qur'anic schools and charged some with using religion for personal profit.
The campaign for scientific socialism intensified in 1972. On the occasion of Islamic Eidul Ad-ha the major Muslim festival associated with the pilgrimage, the president defined scientific socialism as half practical work and half ideological belief. He declared that work and belief were compatible with Islam because the Qur'an condemned exploitation and money lending and urged compassion, unity, and cooperation among Muslims. But he stressed the distinction between religion as an ideological instrument for the manipulation of power and as a moral force. He condemned the antireligious attitude of  Marxists Religion, Siad Barre said, was an integral part of the Somali worldview, but it belonged in the private sphere, whereas scientific socialism dealt with material concerns such as poverty. Religious leaders should exercise their moral influence but refrain from interfering in political or economic matters
After the military regime took over power in 1969, all non-state organizations were completely banned, including the burgeoning Islamic organizations. Nevertheless, Islamic activism took greater strides by 1970s in reaction to the introduction of socialist ideology by the regime. The newly founded student organization of “al-Ahli” and scholars of the banned “al-Nahda” were coordinating stiff defiance to the regime’s ideology. They have confronted socialist ideology with promoting Islamic awareness through establishing many Islamic study circles that were reproduced every corner of Somalia. This revivalism was part and parcel of the wave of Islamic radicalisation gaining impetus in the entire Muslim world after the Arab-Israel war of 1967. Initially, the majority of Islamic radicals movements in Somalia claimed affinity with moderate methodologies for propagating Islam, similar to that of Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt in its matured stage in the seventies. However, that situation changed after the Islamic movement was hard-hit in its infancy
In early January 1975, evoking the message of equality, justice, and social progress contained in the Qur'an, Siad Barre announced a new family law that gave women the right to inheritance on an equal basis with men. Some Somalis believe the law was proof that the SRC wanted to undermine the basic structure of Islamic society. In Mogadishu twenty-three religious leaders protested inside their mosques They were arrested and charged with acting at the instigation of a foreign power and with violating state security; ten leading scholars were executed  and hundreds of Islamic activists were prosecuted but Sheik Mohamed walaaleeye and Sheik Hassan Absiye Derie were among them.Most religious leaders, however, kept silent. The government continued to organize training courses for shaykhs in scientific socialism.
As a result of oppression and prosecution, many Islamic activists fled to Afganistan, Pakistan , Saudi Arabia Sudan, Egypt and the Persian Gulf states, getting employment there and education mainly in the Islamic universities in these countries. Conservative Arab countries in the Persian Gulf had been supporting forces opposing socialist ideology in Somalia and thus facilitated Somali Islamists to join Islamic universities. In these countries, Somalis came into contact with Muslim scholars from all over the world and with all kinds of Islamic revivalist groups having different visions and strategies. Somali Islamists became ideologically divided and brought back home these divisive ways of Islamism, introducing them to the younger generations in Somalia, from 1976 to 1980
This has coincided with the early proliferation of Islamic fundamentalism, at the height of popularity of Muslim brotherhood in Egypt  an Islamic movement that swayed immense influence among the Muslim populations of Asia and Africa.
In meeting held in Burao in 1984, and jointly gave birth to a new organization to be known as the Al-Ittihad Al-Islami (Islamic Union/Islamic Unity). Sheikh Ali Warsame  assumed the leadership of the newly founded Al-Ittihad Al-Islami
From the inception, Al-Ittihad has been created as a compound of a number of entities whose constituent units operate with relative operational freedom although still inter-dependent, financially and organizationally. The units have sufficient contacts between them and, at times, impact on each other’s decisions and actions, though each still acts self-sufficiently as a part of a whole. While an extraordinary umbrella framework has been instituted in the form of Al-Ittihad, a unified command structure has neither been visible nor identified from the start. Empirical observations suggest Al-Ittihad as a highly decentralized movement with no known or identified command and control centre. However, its broader objective of establishing an Islamic state in the Horn of Africa has been, unmistakably, clear from the onset. What has never been clear, though, is the content and substance of its political programme.
Several other radical islamic groups remained outside the newly-born Al-Ittihad organization. Groups within the Wahdada and Assalafiya declined to join due to misgivings on the likely future ideological direction of the new organization and owing to negative accounts on Assalafiya propagated by the Muslim Brotherhood. Al Islah , another Islamic group that branched off from the Muslim Brotherhood, with large followers in Somalia, opted to exist and operate independently even though it generally espoused similar religious ideology and pursued common objectives with Al-Ittihad. Al-Takfiir, a militant extremist group that virtually detached itself from the society, operated within the Al-Ittihad establishment in complete seclusion. Due to its subtle and discreet activities and physical detachment from the general public, it is sometimes mistakenly regarded as a separate and independent outfit or a sort of a splinter group that branched off from Al-Ittihad.
Radical Islam in Somalia 1980 -1991 :
During the period between 1984 and 1991, the radical group name Al-Ittihad registered significant organizational growth; its membership swelled through grassroots enrolment alluring the disadvantaged, particularly the downtrodden and less fortunate segments of the society. It managed to penetrate into the civil service, the military and academic institutions, as its peaceful and sophisticated methodology of getting across its Islamic awakening message won popular acceptance, and due to the fact that it, relatively, refrained from meddling into the affairs of the government. In what amounted to a major departure from the religious tradition, it started to lay the foundations for a solid economic base launching a network of interdependent small businesses in major cities and towns, introducing slowly but steadily, bits of Wahabbiya culture and philosophy on the way. All of these programs were consciously executed with subtlety and sophistication, ringing no alarm bells. The intelligence agencies  (NSS) of the then Somali government failed to detect any danger signals of this radical group .
Due to the magnetism of the oil boom in the 1970's and perhaps lured by the petrodollar, tens of thousands of Somalis flocked to Saudi Arabia for employment opportunities in the 1970s and 1980s. Thousands more were offered scholarships by the government of Saudi Arabia. The majority of the Somali students who turned up in the kingdom found their way into the Islamic University of Medina. Others studied at Um-Alqura University in Mecca and the Imam Saud University in Riyad. The Somali students in these universities were provided with lavish benefits and financial assistances, such as free accommodation and food, generous pocket money or monthly stipends, marriage allowances and yearly round-trip tickets. The large outflow of thousands of manual labourers and young educated males to the Gulf States in the 1980's gave the Arab radical religious groups an opportunity to interact with, cultivate and eventually indoctrinate the fertile minds of essentially non-radical Muslim Somalis. Hence, for the first time, a large number of Somali youth came in contact with political/radical Islam, activist Islamic groups and transnational Islamic issues. Upon their return to Somalia, newly converted Somali Islamists became instrumental in the activation of circles of Islamic study groups linked with Muslim Brotherhood in major urban centres. Closely-knit cells of Muslim Brotherhood composed of educated and professionals became active, especially in Mogadishu, Hargeisa and Burao cities, afterwards
The Saudi's Hidden Agenda :
But the hidden agenda of the Saud's was Throughout this period  the policy which they were  preventing Somalia to pursue oil explorations in their own somali territory. The Saudi government paid millions of dollar to most western petroleum companies to stop exploraint any oil and gas in somalia . But on the  other hand saudi's also been tacitly supporting Somalia’s relentless efforts to recapture somalis lost territory of Ogadne in Ethiopia , the Saudi's told the somali regime  In return, Saudi government provided free oil and substantial financial support to Somalia. With this financial incentive, Saudi government relatively influenced the internal policy of Somalia, especially in the promotion of Arabic language and Islamic culture. Competing with Saudis and certainly interested to stem the growing influence of the Saudi government in Somalia, the Al-Azhar University of Egypt offered scholarships to thousands of Somali students, in the 1980's. These were students who have completed Egyptian secondary schools in Mogadishu, namely, Jamal Abdinasir and Sheikh Suufi. Egypt also constructed and financed primary and intermediate schools in Hargeisa, Burao, Galkayo, Belet Weyne, Mogadishu and Kismayo. Students who have completed these schools were enrolled in the two Egyptian secondary schools in Mogadishu.
Hence, thousands of trained professionals who have graduated from Egyptian educational institutions eventually got their way into the rank and file of the civil service and the military.thus creating a Underground radical religious movements and organizations supported by the Arab Islamic fundamentalists started ill-timed grassroots campaigns intended to provoke public resentment against the government.
In mid 80's Many of these radical religious figures were subsequently sent to detention centres by the regime . Those who were not arrested either left the country or went underground. Those who left the country eventually settled in the Gulf Arab states. As a consequence, Islamic fundamentalism failed to regenerate itself throughout Siad Barre’s regime.
But In the closing days of Mr Siad Barre’s regime, radical religious groupslike Al ittihad and Al islah  began to unveil their camouflage cover. Taking advantage of the emerging chaos and the breakdown of law and order, radical religious groups got the courage to preach openly and call for the imposition of the Sharia Law and for the establishment of an Islamic State in Somalia.  Al-Ittihad, the most militant of the Islamic groups mushrooming in Somalia, capitalized on the power vacuum

1991 the collapse of the somali Government and the rise of the Radical Islamist :
In the aftermath of the demise of the Somali government and the ensuing disintegration, Somalia has degenerated into a state of lawlessness. The country has fragmented into a disparate fiefdoms run by a bunch of rival and unruly warlords that selfishly capitalize on the suffering of the beleaguered Somali people
This time the ground was ripe for Al-Ittihad’s takeover of Somalia in 1991. With high degree of organization and ample financial resources, it has effectively replaced the demised governmental institutions. It quickly took over the business sector, setting up booming and lucrative entrepreneurial trade network in all over Somalia. It established many profitable businesses such as banks, import-export trading companies, bakeries, shopping centers, small industries, telecommunications, credit schemes, transport networks, relief organizations and well-financed religious schools (not traditional Koranic schools), similar to the religious Madrassas in Pakistan. Al-Ittihad supplanting some of the collapsed state functions began to administer Islamic Courts and to enlist its own militia force, buying huge quantities of the weaponry left behind by the disintegrated Somali military. In the absence of a central government in Somalia, Al-Ittihad became the major employment opportunity provider to the largely impoverished ordinary Somalis. Furthermore, taking advantage of the presence of UNISOM in Somalia in early 1990's Al-Ittihad became a major contractor and supplier for the UN. It has also provided security escort services for the UN, receiving huge revenues, in return. 
Like the Taliban of Afghanistan,of the late 90's  Al-Ittihad was a mysterious organization engaged in clandestine operations. Its activities was largely undercover and beyond the legal bounds. Its operations was painstakingly deliberated with maximum care, preparation and in complete secrecy. Like the Taliban, it receives huge financial support from radical Islamic institutions, religiously radical Arab elites in the Gulf States and through the 90's all the way to early 2002 complex fund-raising schemes. Like the Taliban, Al-Ittihad had regional and international links with transnational radical religious movements and is in pursuit of expansionist strategies that could have adverse security implications for the countries of the Horn of Africa and beyond. Like the Taliban, it is hostile to fellow Muslim compatriots who do not espouse similar Islamic ideals and to non-Muslims whom it regards as infidels.
 2006 - 2009 The Rise of the New wave of Islamic Militancy : 
.As a result, Somalia has become a theatre for international and regional interventions, then caught up in a bizarre assortment of new waves of  Islamic insurgencies  and weak state institutions. It is the collapse of the state, along with successive failures of transitional governments  that has ushered in a stronger political Islam, which has become more militant since the Global War on Terrorism after 9/11,  this new rise of islamic radicals call  the Union of Islamic Courts (UIC) in 2006 set the stage for what we see recently in Somalia.
However,in 2007 was the start of the new wave of islamic militancy in somali the actors were the two notorious groups name  Al-Shabab and Hizb-al-Islam (formerly members of UIC and ARS) who are fighting this weak  government headed by the former chairman of UIC and ARS, and the incumbent sheak name Sheikh Sharif
In conclusion, the early militancy 1840's to 1920's in the name of Islam resembles current militancy in (1) mass radicalizaton and the exclusion of other Islamic groups, (2) monopoly of religious legitimacy by using the islamic shari'a law (3) excessive use of  violence , cruelty and injustice against somalis who don't follow their teachings .All these forms of islamic militancy have its roots in the Islamic fiqi (jurisprudence)  connections and influences of the Al- Salafia and Al -wahhabia school of Islam. The current extremism and militancy, however, is rooted to the emergence of Al-itihad al-Islami in 1980s and its militaristic adventure in 1990's which ended in the disastrous defeat in Kismayo, Puntland and Gedo in 1991, 1992 and 1996 respectively.  Moreover, although current extremism in the name of Islam is an age old  islamic phenomenon and an expression of jihadi mentality that holds an extreme anger responding to various internal and external tensions within islam it self , but these  three episodes attest the occurrences of similar phenomenon despite the fact that it happened in different context and conditions. Furthermore, all these events ended with radicals defeat and massive human suffering which most likely will be the fate of this current islamic militancy for this new decade..
May the freethought  free us all : Amen